“Alcohol consumption in medieval Britain was, by modern standards, very high.”
Thus say the experts and I’m not going to argue with them!
A word of caution before I go further. Ale is not the same thing as beer. Beer has hops. Hops are what give beer its bitter quality and long shelf-life.
In the ‘Dark Ages,’ Ale and alehouses are mentioned from the earliest times in the laws and canons issued by kings and bishops.
Thus, in 616, the number of ale-sellers was restricted by King Ethelbert of Kent. (Ethelbert’s law for Kent, the earliest written code in any Germanic language, instituted a complex system of fines).
In 570, The monk, St. Gildas (born around 517 in the North of England or Wales) accused British chieftains and clergy of going into battle drunk and leading the country to ruin.
Drunken Brits? I don’t believe it!
In 675, Fortunatus commented on what he considered to be the enormous capacity of Germans to drink!
In 680 Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, decreed that a Christian layman who drank too much must do penance for fifteen days AND he said that a person is drunk “when his mind is quite changed, his tongue stutters, his eyes are disturbed; he has vertigo in his head with distension of the stomach, followed by pain.”
In 688, King Ine of Wessex made laws specifically about alehouses.
In 745 Ecbricht, Archbishop of York decreed that no priest should eat or drink in a tavern.
That rule has long since gone!
While hops may have been used as early as around the mid-eighth century, exactly when and where brewing with hops began is unclear. Old recipes added such ingredients as poppy seeds, mushrooms, aromatics, honey, sugar, bay leaves, butter and bread crumbs. That’s why the ‘brew’ had to be strained (see Viking cupbearers below).
In 965 King Edgar of Wessex and England ordered that there be no more than one alehouse per village. Interestingly, Edgar also regulated the size of drinking vessels, by reference to measures which were marked by pegs in the size of the vessel (this is thought to be the origin of expressions such as ‘I’ll take you down a peg or two’). Edgar was a very small man, recorded as being less than five feet tall.
Alcohol was central to Viking culture. The Vikings had the same categories of alcoholic drink as the Anglo-Saxons — mead, ale, wine, and beor (BEER). Like the Anglo-Saxons, they venerated mead but drank mostly ale. Modern attempts to reproduce a Viking brew have resulted in a strong (9 percent ABV), dark, and malty beverage, sweet in taste – which would have seemed even sweeter in an age when sugar was rare. In polite Viking society ale was strained before being served – ale strainers have been found amid the grave goods of well-bred ladies, who performed the role of cupbearers in the Viking halls.
1066 – After William, Duke of Normandy, captured England at the Battle of Hastings, English-French wine trade expanded rapidly.
1080’s – Russian priests preached the virtues of drinking in moderation and entire sermons were devoted against drunkenness. However, the idea of abstinence from alcohol was rejected as heretical.
I’m with the Russians on that one!
1102 – In England, Anselm decreed that priests should not attend drinking bouts or drink too much.
1152– In England, where wine was imported and expensive, and therefore noble, the demand of its gentry sparked a viticultural revolution in the Bordeaux region of France. This had been English soil following the marriage of Henry Plantagenet to Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152.
1188 – The first national levy on ale in England was imposed to support the Crusades.
Alewives in England brewed, at least, two strengths of beer and monks brewed three, with the strength of the beverage indicated by single, double, or triple Xs.
The ‘broom’ sticking out of the roof was sometimes seven feet long and a Royal Decree ordered that the size be reduced as people were being knocked off their horses!
Public records in the medieval period before the Black Death show that brewing ale was mainly women’s work. This female dominance of the trade likely evolved because brewing was not a specialist trade and only marginally profitable. The lack of needed specialization and physical location within the home made ale brewing an accessible trade for women to add income to the household in both towns and countryside communities
The most important development regarding alcohol throughout the Middle Ages was that of distillation. However, it was Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) who first clearly described the process which made possible the manufacture of distilled spirits.
Thus was born the WATER of LIFE (aqua vitae)
Amaldus of Villanova (d. 1315), a professor of medicine, is credited with coining the term aqua vitae: “We call it [distilled liquor] aqua vitae, and this name is remarkably suitable, since it is really a water of immortality. It prolongs life, clears away ill-humours, revives the heart, and maintains youth.”
These were modest claims compared to those made much later by the fifteenth-century German physician, Hieronymus Brunschwig:
“It eases the diseases coming of cold. It comforts the heart. It heals all old and new sores on the bead. It causes a good color in a person. It heals baldness and causes the hair well to grow, and kills lice and fleas. It cures lethargy. Cotton wet in the same time and a little wrung out again and so put in the ears at night going to bed, and a little drunk thereof, is of good against all deafness. It eases the pain in the teeth, and causes sweet breath. ….
He goes on for another fifteen pages about the benefit of spirits so I’ll call it a draw just here!
In the mid-1200s, fermenting and drinking hard or fermented cider became more popular in England as new varieties of apples were introduced.
1256 King Louis IX (1226-1270) banned taverns from serving drinks for consumption on the premises to anyone other than travelers.
1268 Adulterating alcoholic beverages was a crime punishable by death in medieval Scotland.
1300 In the village of Longhurst (as featured in Book one of “The King’s Jew) an estimated 60% of all families were connected in some way with the brewing or selling of ale.
1309 – London had an estimated one alcohol vendor for every 12 inhabitants.
1316 – Because of a scarcity of wheat in England, a proclamation was issued prohibiting its use in brewing.
1330 – A law was enacted in England that required that wine and beer be sold at a reasonable price. However there was no indication of how to determine what a fair price might be.
1366 – Exporting beer and ale from England required a royal license.
1381 – The increasing price of corn in England led to an increasing price of ale, leading to a concern that the poor would not be able to afford the beverage. Therefore, the mayor of London decreed price controls on ale.
PRICES = (12d = 5p at today’s prices)
Wine = 4d a gallon.
Ale = 1d a gallon.
Beer = 1d a quart.
You could get two chickens for a penny!
Thus ends our look at some background for “The King’s Jew” Thank you for reading this far
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